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Dominant: an allele that masks the presence of of a recessive allele in the phenotype
Recessive: an allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence of a dominant allele
Allele: alternate forms or varieties of a gene
Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an individual organism
Genotype: the genetic make-up of an individual
For more key terms click here
Describe the role of DNA as the blueprint for controlling the characteristics of organisms
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in the nucleus of cells and contains the instructions required for an organism to grow, develop, survive and reproduce. It does this by controlling protein synthesis and the production of enzymes.
The basic building block of DNA is a nucleotide.
Click here for a brief overview of genetics
Use models and diagrams to represent the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes.
Click below to watch a video on the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes.
Mutations: changes in the bases of genes, or to chromosomes.
Represent patterns of inheritance of a simple dominant/recessive characteristic through generations of a family
This ClickView video reviews the structure of DNA and the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes.
Mitosis: cell division in body cells for growth and repair. It produces two identical cells.
Recognise that genetic information passed on to offspring is from both parents by meiosis and fertilisation.
Meiosis: cell division in gonads that creates 4 non-identical sex cells or gametes (sperm and egg)
Fertilisation occurs during sexual reproduction when a male sex cell (sperm) unites with a female sex cell (egg) to produce an offspring.
Variation within species is due to meiosis and/or random fertilisation.
Describe mutations as changes in DNA or chromosomes and outline the factors that contribute to causing mutations.
A mutagen is any agent capable of altering the structure of DNA within our cells.
Watch the video below, available via ClickView, and complete the resource activities before, during and after the clip.